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# Mathematics

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Year 3

**Number and Place value**

Pupils should be taught to:

count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number

recognise the place value of each digit in a three-digit number (hundreds, tens, ones)

compare and order numbers up to 1000

identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations

read and write numbers up to 1000 in numerals and in words

solve number problems and practical problems involving these ideas.

**Number- Addition and Subtraction**

Pupils should be taught to:

add and subtract numbers mentally, including:

a three-digit number and ones

a three-digit number and tens

a three-digit number and hundreds

add and subtract numbers with up to three digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction

estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers

solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition and subtraction.

**Number- Multiplication and division**

Pupils should be taught to:

recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables

write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods

solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division, including positive integer scaling problems and correspondence problems in which n objects are connected to m objects.

Number- Fractions

Pupils should be taught to: count up and down in tenths;

recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing one-digit numbers or quantities by 10

recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and non unit fractions with small denominators

recognise and use fractions as numbers: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators

recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators

add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole [for example, 7/ 5 + 7 /1 = 7 /6 ]

compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators

solve problems that involve all of the above.

**Measurement**

Pupils should be taught to:

measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml)

measure the perimeter of simple 2-D shapes

add and subtract amounts of money to give change, using both £ and p in practical contexts

tell and write the time from an analogue clock, including using Roman numerals from I to XII, and 12-hour and 24-hour clocks

estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute; record and compare time in terms of seconds, minutes and hours; use vocabulary such as o’clock, a.m./p.m., morning, afternoon, noon and midnight

know the number of seconds in a minute and the number of days in each month, year and leap year

compare durations of events [for example to calculate the time taken by particular events or tasks].

**Geometry- Properties of Shape**

Pupils should be taught to:

draw 2-D shapes and make 3-D shapes using modelling materials; recognise 3-D shapes in different orientations and describe them

recognise angles as a property of shape or a description of a turn

identify right angles, recognise that two right angles make a half-turn, three make three quarters of a turn and four a complete turn; identify whether angles are greater than or less than a right angle

identify horizontal and vertical lines and pairs of perpendicular and parallel lines.

**Statistics**

Pupils should be taught to:

interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables

solve one-step and two-step questions [for example, ‘How many more?’ and ‘How many fewer?’] using information presented in scaled bar charts and pictograms and tables.

**Year 4**

**Number- Number and place value**

Pupils should be taught to

count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000

find 1000 more or less than a given number

count backwards through zero to include negative numbers

recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones)

order and compare numbers beyond 1000

identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations

round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000

solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers

read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of zero and place value.

**Number- Addition and Subtraction**

Pupils should be taught to:

add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate

estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation

solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.

**Number- Multiplication and Division**

Pupils should be taught to:

recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12

use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers

recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations

multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout

solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two digit numbers by one digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects.

**Number- Fractions (including decimals)**

Pupils should be taught to:

recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions

count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten.

solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number

add and subtract fractions with the same denominator

recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths

recognise and write decimal equivalents to 1/2, 1/4, 3/4

find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths

round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number

compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places

solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places.

**Measurement**

Pupils should be taught to:

Convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]

measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres

find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares

estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence

read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12- and 24-hour clocks

solve problems involving converting from hours to minutes; minutes to seconds; years to months; weeks to days.

**Geometry- Property of Shape**

Pupils should be taught to:

compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes

identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to two right angles by size

identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations

complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry.

**Geometry- Position and Direction**

Pupils should be taught to:

describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant

describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down

plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon.

**Statistics**

Pupils should be taught to:

interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs.

solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs.

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